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Comparing the suitability of foodstuff production systems Food and Beverage Operation Management


Task 1 Question

Task 1 Answer

Task 2 Question

Task 2 Answer

Task 3 Question

Task 3 Answer


Task 1 Question

1.1) Discuss the characteristics of food creation and food and beverage service system

1.4) Justify the suitability of devices for particular food and beverage outlets

Task 1 Answer

I have been assigned by the operations to turn up with an improved method in the kitchen to permit the hotel to create good production so as to cater customer demand. I am aware that the hotel currently adopting a typical traditional production approach in the main kitchen because they believe the food should be prepared by experts to keep up top quality and the originality of the food itself.

Conventional traditional production approach is generating utilizing mainly fresh substances and traditional cooking methods (Foskett & Paskins, 2011). In this system, the organization of your kitchen is situated around the division of jobs into areas or organizations of individuals performing analogous task which is highly in expense such as salaries and their products although it allows for specialization and production of a high level of skill, however it is labour intensive.

Using conventional traditional convection method also means the creation of the food and beverages are masses and need to be comparable or above the benchmarks which ingest lots of time to inspect the production and require more workers. In the traditional conventional system, they utilize the kitchen brigade where there may be many individual sections in the kitchen with staffs performing specific aspects of food creation which is lead by the head chef.

Type of Chef


Head chef or in French Chef de cuisine

In charge of everything linked to your kitchen, management of personnel, menu design and style, ordering, purchasing, overall quality and kitchen budget

Deputy chef or in French Sous chef

Second in command after the head chef, direct assistant to the chef de partie

Chef de partie or referred to as head chef in section of the kitchen

In charge of a particular section of the kitchen

Cook or Commis in French

Working under a chef de partie to understand the obligations of a station

Chef de partie



In charge of the planning the sauces


In demand of preparing the fish dishes


In demand of preparing all of the grilled dishes


In fee of preparing all of the fried dishes


In charge of preparing the scorching appetizers

Garde manger

Pantry chef which responsible for the cold food such as for example salad


In fee of preparing all of the meat


In charge of the pastries


Moves between sections as needed

The method I’ve chosen which is more advanced than the conventional method is cook-chill technique. Cook-chill method is food production safe-keeping and regeneration technique utilising principle of low temp control to preserve the qualities of processed food items. (Foskett & Paskins, 2011)

It is founded on the normal preparation and cooking of food accompanied by rapid chilling safe-keeping in controlled low-temperature circumstances above freezing stage of 0-3 degree Celsius and subsequently reheating immediately before consumption which is performed in the finishing kitchen. It is also used in volume catering such as hospital. In cook-chill program, they also use a traditional partie system which includes the head chef, deputy chef, chef de partie and make but much less staffs because cook-chill program does not use a huge area and require bare minimum staff to work.

Type of Chef


Head chef or in French Chef de cuisine

In fee of everything linked to your kitchen, management of personnel, menu design and style, ordering, purchasing, overall quality and kitchen budget

Deputy chef or in French Sous chef

Second in command after the head chef, direct associate to the chef de partie

Chef de partie or referred to as head chef in section of the kitchen

In charge of a particular section of your kitchen such as responsible for the reheating the chilled foodstuff.

Cook or Commis in French

Working under a chef de partie to learn the obligations of a station such as chilling the meals.

The motive I chose Cook-chill systems since it requires low capital purchase and minimum staff. Nearly every food can be cook-chilled provided that the right methods are used through the preparations. And the elements are already been prepared anticipate for the portioning unlike the traditional conventional method where that they had to prepare everything from scratch for example they had to buy the meats fresh from the market or the supplier and give it to the section to cut the meats and preparing it for portioning. The purpose of using cook-chilled system is normally to prolong its storage life which is best because the hotel also attracts the Royal Brunei In-flight Catering.

The advantages of using cook-chill program to the client are it increased variety and selection, where there is an array of cuisine available. It also improved the standard of the food because the standards are very well maintained. The services could be maintained at all time no matter staff absences because the foods are already prepared. Furthermore employing cook-chill systems are fewer dependence on price fluctuation.

The disadvantages of using cook-chill system will be the textures and flavour may changes if the foods aren’t prepared carefully which can cause customer dissatisfaction. When clients aren’t satisfied, they tend to spread the news that the resort’s restaurant aren’t up to common which lead to loss of customers.

The service I’ve chosen for the hotel is American provider. American program is portions of meals are plated in your kitchen and dished up to each guest by waiter or waitress. The features of using American provider are how to write an explanatory essay it really is fast and simple and in addition inexpensive since it require fewer staffs to dished up the guest. Last but not least using American service will not require personnel to be experienced technical staff hence much less cost.

The disadvantages of using American provider is there is less showmanship which means the presentations aren’t beyond the customers expectation compared to silver service or English services. Finally using American program reduces personalized attention. Simply because there is less personnel to wait the customer which might affect the pleasure of the client.

I will compare the seven stages in food and beverages between your traditional conventional system and the cook-chill system.

Traditional conventional methods

Cook-chilled methods

Foods In

All food purchased should be of prime quality

All food purchased must be of prime quality


Most of the substances are fresh things that are bought daily therefore storage area are for the dry out ingredients only. The dried up ingredients are stored in a dry spot to ensure the qualities are maintained.

Stored correctly beneath the requirement temperatures. The decision of container must protect and in some instances enhance the quality of the product at all stages.


All food are transferred to specific section to prepare yourself and the finished kinds are transferred to the hot kitchen.

All food must be prepared quickly under the appropriate conditions avoiding any likely cross-contamination and at the correct temperature.


During the cooking procedure the centre of the food must reach a temperature of at least 70 degree Celsius as well as 80 degree Celsius to accomplish a greater safety margin.

During the cooking method the centre of the meals must reach a temperature of at least 70 degree Celsius and even 80 degree Celsius to accomplish a larger safety margin.

After cooking, all food must be chilled within thirty minutes of cooking and lowered to a temperature of 0-3 level Celsius within 90 moments.


All cooked food should be stored in the sizzling or wintry cupboard or placed into a tray.

All chilled cooked food should be stored in its special refrigeration area. Under no circumstances store cooked chilled product under the same conditions as fresh

products. Often monitor the temp of the merchandise regularly.


All food are reheated either by convection or traditional method.

All cook-chill food must be reheated as quickly as possible to a minimum temperature of 70 degree Celsius, ideally 75 degree Celsius but preferably at 80 level Celsius


Some foods are provided in plates. While various other either presented in trays, buffet or dishes.

In some cook-chill devices the food can be chilled in multi-portion container after that plated before reheating. The portioning procedure should be carried out in a manipulated environment within 30 minutes of the food leaving the chilled store and before reheating commences at a heat range of 10 degree Celsius.

Task 2 Question

1.2) Discuss factors affecting dishes and menus for certain system

Task 2 Answer

As the supervisor of the meals and beverage for The Empire hotel and Country Club and as the dealer for the Royal Brunei In trip catering, I must discuss the elements affecting quality recipes and menus for the food and beverage system.

The first factor is about the type of menu choose for the in airline flight catering. There will be two types of menu which will be ala carte and desk d’hote. Desk d’hote is a full course meal that gives a restricted choice within each training and served at a set price (No cost Dictionary, n.d). Most airlines use desk d’hote because it offers limited menus and apply both available class and economy course. The prices are fixed which is easier for the airlines to compute their cost and include it in the ticket bills. Meals that are included in the table d’hote happen to be appetizer such as for example salad, main training course and desert.

Ala carte is where in fact the dishes are listed separately and individually priced (A la Carte, n.d). It isn’t recommendable for airlines to employ since it is inconvenient and perhaps hard for the customers to pay because they could change their cash currency to other and maybe it really is insufficient.

The best meal for in air travel will be poultry because poultry is easy to prepare in a wholesome approach by grilling, roasting, sauteing, poaching, stir-frying and baking. In line with the Dietary Guidelines for Us citizens, we should be eating lean sources of protein, including chicken. Nevertheless chicken are likely contaminated with Salmonella. Salmonella can be a bacterium that occurs primarily in the gut of the poultry which causes foodstuff poisoning (Foskett & Paskins, 2011). But we make certain it doesn’t happen by checking with our supplier and ensure that our supplier includes a certificate that shows they can legally and accredited from the federal government to operate.

Healthy eating has become a trend currently as according to a report conduct by Nielsen (2015). The percentage of adults around the globe is overweight with an increase of 30% in the last 30 years while children are 47%. Relating to statistic World Health Firm, WHO, proven that 1.6 billion adult are facing overweight and 400 million persons are obesity. That is serious problem to the people in the world. Due to this problem, consumers from around the world are starting to become more health mindful. Therefore we will modify the food into more healthier such as for example using less oil, grilling and using olive oil instead of palm oil.

Different people have different necessities. Some persons have different result when consuming meals or beverages. The risky thing is when they have food allergy which may be fatal if consume. Apart from that, the average person consumer need such as people that have special diets for instance; consumers with raised chlesterol will require low a cholesterol meals while vegetarians will be offered a vegan food. Other good examples are gluten free food, non lactose meal, low sodium meals, bland meal, high fibers meal, low protein meals, children and baby’s food (Royal Brunei Airlines, n.d.). This is why individual customer needs particular diets such as no sugars or no peanuts. The customers should notify the staffs or in their booking reservation that they want special dietary to ensure that they will receive exceptional meals with special dietary.

In accordance to Islamic laws, any Islamic airlines are not allowed to serve pork or alcoholic beverages unless it really is requested by the buyers. But since the Empire Hotel and Region Club Brunei’s cafe has Halal qualification, we will not provide any pork or alcoholic beverages.

Task 3 Question

1.3) Compare the cost and staffing implications for different systems

Task 3 Answer

Before I present my proposal to the control, I am going to make as any changes will incur cost, consequently I will compare the price and staffing implication for each and every system which is the traditional conventional approach and cook-chill method.

Traditional conventional


Cost associated with products

  • Fresh ingredient has to buy daily to guarantee the freshness and prime top quality of the ingredient.
  • Products cannot last long
  • Ingredient can be kept in the chiller blaster to ensure the qualities aren’t spoiled.
  • The ingredient needs to be top quality
  • Products last long

Cost linked to the equipment used

  • Lots of equipments needed for staffs
  • chiller blaster maintenance is expensive
  • less equipments are needed

Cost associated with employing staff

  • Various skilled staff are needed
  • Work time aren’t fixed
  • Skilled personnel are needed but only few
  • Work time is minimal

From the table above, cook-chilled has verified to be much better than traditional conventional approach. From the cost connected with products, in conventional approach, the ingredients need to bought daily plus they have to prepare the ingredient right after it arrives unlike the cook-chill, ingredients are already been minimize from the supplier and ready to be chilled to ensure its quality are not degraded which save considerable time and energy of the staff. Likewise the finished merchandise of the conventional method cannot last prolonged unlike the cook-chill technique where the product can carry on at least 5 times (Foskett & Paskins, 2011).

Although the machinery for cook-chill are expensive but for long term investment it is worth because there are fewer staff needed to operate in the kitchen which means it really is easier to handle your kitchen. Furthermore, there are lesser equipments needed because the majority of the ingredients already are been prepared (James, 2012).

And lastly, simply few staffs needed for cook-chill which means fewer salaries to spend to the employee unlike the conventional method where they want more staff to operate in different area of the kitchen in fact it is hard to keep track of their good being and the task time in the traditional method is much longer because they need to prepare the substances from scratch (Royal Brunei Airlines, n.d.).

Therefore the method I have chosen is better than the hotel current approach since it is effective and better doing work environment to the hotel.

Reference,. ‘What Is usually American Service? Description And Meaning’. N.p., 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.,. ‘What Is The Home Brigade? – Culinarylore.Com’. N.p., 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.,. ‘Table D’hote Menu // Wine & Dine @ Theambassador Hotel Llandudno’. N.p., 2015. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.

Singh, Hemant. ‘AMERICAN Program ~ Meals & BEVERAGE’ N.p., 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.,. ‘Family Design’. N.p., 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.,. ‘Saucier Dictionary Explanation | Saucier Defined’. N.p., 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.

table d’hote. (n.d.)Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged. (1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003). Retrieved April 23 2015 from

a la carte. (n.d.)Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged. (1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003). Retrieved April 23 2015 from

Eat, We. ‘Reports | We Are What WE CONSUME | Nielsen’ N.p., 2015. Web. 23 Apr. 2015.,. ‘Inflight Dishes – Royal Brunei Airlines Australia’. N.p., 2015. Web. 23 Apr. 2015.,. ‘Saucier Dictionary Classification | Saucier Defined’. N.p., 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.

Laksamana School of Business

The Esping Andersens Welfare Regime Typology

The Esping Andersens Welfare Regime Typology

This assignment will become analysing precisely on the Esping-Andersens welfare regime typology along with its illustration. To ensure that a better knowledge of the illustration, three countries will be utilized as ideal illustrations for different typologies, namely the uk, Sweden and Germany. In addition to the illustration employing the three countries stated, the Esping-Andersen’s welfare regime may also be assessed further comprehensive.


There are two key paradigms of the explanation of the welfare condition expansion which will be the social and financial factors, as well as the political factor. The public and monetary factors are usually the main driving drive of welfare state expansion which is also predicated on the logic of industrialisation. The industrialism is normally a long-term and inevitable aftereffect of economic development in which when the economical productivity increases, the assets for the welfare will actually increase too. On top of that, industrialism will bring in lots of other factors such as for example urbanisation and people’s relocation results, population development and their changing composition alongside the growth of the nation state’s bureaucratic capability regarding delivering their welfare (Quadagno, 1987). Another major explanation of expansion of the welfare is the political factors. The framework and generosity of welfare talk about can only be explained if we take into account the power resources of interpersonal classes and the fusions between them. In addition, powerful and trade union motions also the public democratic parties are also recognised as decisive political actors for the creation of universal social privileges. These two main theories of the development of the welfare express all have its relevance and are inter-related to one another (Castles, 2010). That is also what Esping-Andersen believes in.

In Esping Andersen’s significant and most influential do the job, written in ‘The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism’, he mentioned that de-commodification and also social stratification of a nation will be the key issues in conditions of assessing the welfare state. These two are also called the key indicators as measurements of quality of the welfare talk about provided. The initial indicator, de-commodification in this point of view is actually the amount to which a interpersonal service has been rendered to the persons of the united states as a subject of right and to the degree which an individual can keep his livelihood without relying on the marketplace (Pierson and Castles, 2006). Numerous typologies of welfare point out have different levels of de-commodification it offers to its people. The level of this de-commodification can be measured by three models of dimensions which are the rules that govern people boltzmann constant‘s eligibility to welfare benefits, level of income alternative to those on benefits and the range of entitlements presented (Esping-Andersen, 1990). As for the other indicator, cultural stratification is the level to which welfare condition differentiates between different cultural groups, for instance based on occupational position or gender (Cochrane et al, 2001).

The welfare says vary considerably with respect to those two guidelines; the de-commodification or social privileges and stratification. As the welfare status variations aren’t linearly distributed since it is dependent on different arrangements among the condition, market and the spouse and children, Esping-Andersen stated that welfare states can then be split into three different best welfare regime typologies. They are the liberal regime, conservative regime and lastly, the social-democratic regime type (Kolberg, 1992).

The liberal welfare express is definitely characterised by means-tested assistance, modest universal transfers, or modest cultural insurance policies that predominate. These cater generally to persons of low salary (usually those in the working-class and are state dependents). This style of welfare condition created entitlement guidelines that are strict and so are also often associated to stigma although the benefits given out are generally modest. For this reason, the state will then encourage the market to ensure and subsidise personal welfare schemes. Subsequently, this welfare point out regime minimises de-commodification effect and encourage a higher degree of social stratification because of the private schemes predominating and in addition the different welfare state recipients that may clearly cause inequality (Kolberg, 1992).

An archetypical example of this welfare regime version is the United Kingdom which is used in buy to illustrate and determine this welfare point out regime better, though it was identified to become more of a hybrid-liberal regime before this. Relating to the Esping-Andersen’s indicators for welfare express, the United Kingdom’s de-commodification is fairly low and thus match the Esping-Andersen ideal style of liberal regime. Relating to him, the uk has a low index of de-commodification of 23.4 which may be the combination of the next individual de-commodification indexes; pensions of 8.5, sickness benefits associated with 7.2 and unemployment insurance of 7.7 (Bambra, 2006). For the country’s social stratification, the score is usually 6 within the liberal scale which is deemed to come to be medium-low (Scruggs and Allan, 2006). This aspect however does not fit into the perfect liberal welfare regime of Esping-Andersen which is supposedly to be great. In addition to that, unlike the original liberal countries such as the United States (which is recognized as the prototype of liberal regime), the uk includes a National Insurance system which was launched by Beveridge in 1942 (Spicker, 2012). Included in this system may be the National Health Services (NHS) which is furnished to all on a free of charge of charge basis which is not a character of a typical liberal regime. Along with that, the United Kingdom consists of four several constituent countries that have their private devolved self-government such as that in Scotland which its education structure is different compared to that in the other part of the country. That is also one of the main criticisms of Esping-Andersen’s welfare regime since it cannot be found in pure form such as for example in this instance. However, the United Kingdom can still be categorised to become a liberal regime as the country generally only provides interpersonal security to its people based on their need which this could be referred to act just as a safety net. Additionally, this social security offered by the talk about funded by taxation are only very limited and are highly stigmatised due to its means-tested distribution including the Working Tax Credit despite the fact that they do hand out benefits to those that require it most (Schifferes, 2005). In addition, as the recent current policy reforms in the United Kingdom that affect the public security like the NHS, which its theory of universality and future is subject to change, only sums up to force the country further in becoming more in to the liberal regime. All the discussed aspects of the United Kingdom’s welfare system virtually tally up the country’s regime of being in the liberal typology.

The second welfare regime determined by Esping- Andersen may be the conservative welfare state regime. This regime can be typified by a average level of de-commodification. This regime type is usually shaped by the twin traditional legacy of Catholic public policy, on the main one part, and corporatism and total control of the state over specific citizen (etatisme) on the other hand. This mix had three important effects when it comes to stratification. The earliest one is the direct affect of the express will be limited to their provision of profit maintenance benefits linked to the people’s occupational status which means that the sphere of unity continues to be quite narrow and corporatist. Moreover, in this regime labour industry participation by

married women is strongly discouraged, because the corporatist regime which is definitely extremely influenced by the Church happen to be committed to the preservation of classic family structures (the basic male breadwinner model). Sociable rights as reflected in the amount of de-commodification made by state policies and method however, did not are the gender dimension of girls who conduct unpaid labour which can be another primary criticism of Esping-Andersen’s welfare regime from feminist view (Sainsbury, 1999). Another significant the pythagorean theorem calculator characteristic of this regime model is the principle of ‘subsidiarity’, a predicament where the state rather than the market will interfere when the family’s capacity to meet up its family member’s want can be unmet (Arts and Gelissen, 2002). Because of these reasons, the amount of stratification this welfare regime make is fairly high.

An example of the conservative welfare regime is the country Germany, which is the prototype illustration of this regime. Pursuing Esping-Andersen’s indicator of de-commodification, Germany score 27.7, in which it is considered to be as medium. This score combined the three specific de-commodification indexes of the following; 8.5 of old age pensions, 7.9 for the sickness benefits and lastly, the unemployment insurance of 11.3 (Bambra, 2006). That is relating to Esping-Andersen’s recommendation of conservative regime that has a medium degree of de-commodification. The welfare for the persons in Germany is founded on their occupational scheme and is usually funded through their personal contribution. As stated, the old age pension score in the de-commodification index for Germany can be low as it requires the people to contribute for a significant period of time for his or her pension rights as well as a sizable amount of individual economic contribution. Because of this, the replacement rate of contribution for the persons will be different as it would depend on the occupation. This consequently results in a high social stratification for the united states at a rating of 8 in the conservative scale (Scruggs and Allan, 2006). Moreover issue, the country built familial obligations its concern and thus, practise the basic principle of male breadwinner model in which only the male in the relatives are allowed to be in the labour market. The vindication for this is that if ladies are permitted to be operating, the country’s social security will must be re-constructed, as traditionally their welfare is extremely dependent compared to that of their spouses or male family member as their welfare source. Due to this explanation of oppressing women’s right, the gender inequality is certainly remarkably saturated in Germany particularly, when it comes to income as women are usually performing unpaid labour work such as childcare within their households needlessly to say with the feminist criticism view on the Esping Andersen’s regime typology. The social welfare of girls is tangled up to their spouses instead of by themselves. Also, it is the market (employers) itself that organise the employees social insurance instead of the state (also, they are referred to as the ‘social partners’). Many of these factors of Germany discussed correspond to the characters of an ideal conservative model according to discussed by Esping-Andersen himself. Grounds of why as advised by Arts and Gelissen (2002) that Germany is unquestionably the ideal type conservative regime.

Finally, Esping-Andersen recognises a social democratic world of the welfare capitalism.

In this model, the level of de-commodification is huge, and the social-democratic basic principle of stratification is normally directed towards achieving something of generous common and highly distributive benefits not dependent on anybody contributions, thus the degree of interpersonal stratification is ideally low. Unlike that of the liberal regime of welfare claims, ‘this welfare model crowds out the market and, consequently, constructs an essentially general solidarity towards the welfare point out’ (Esping-Andersen, 1990). The social policy within this model of welfare state is targeted at maximising the capabilities of individual independence. Ladies in particular no matter their position of whether having to provide childcare or not, are as well encouraged in taking part in the labour market, specifically in the general public sector. This sort of welfare state regime is normally dedicated to full employment because of its entire people so that you can support the welfare condition. Only by making sure that as many persons as conceivable are in employment, can you really maintain such a higher level unity welfare system as advised by Arts and Gelissen (2002).

In order to help expand analyse this welfare regime better, Sweden will be utilized as an illustration as a way to discuss this in higher depth as many of the areas of the social democratic style are indeed discovered in the Swedish welfare express. This country has the virtually all progressively redistributive welfare says under capitalism as it spends a great proportion of its countrywide income on the welfare benefits and providers than any other capitalist express, comparatively with particular emphasis on the idea of universality and participation of its citizen unlike the liberal and conservative products. This explains why Sweden includes a profoundly higher level of de-commodification of 39.1 with the pensions of old-age of 17.0, sickness benefits associated with 15.0 and also unemployment insurance of 15.0 as explained by Esping-Andersen (Bambra, 2006). Also, this is why why Sweden has a low degree of social stratification of 8 in the socialist stratification score (Scruggs and Allan, 2006). Sweden’s focus on the equality of its citizen is because of the road dependence of the solid social-democratic political dominance combined with the fact that for a number of decades over 80 per cent of the Swedish personnel have already been organised in trade unions (Cochrane et al, 2001). The key element of the country’s generous welfare plans is full occupation to its whole citizen including ladies which this also plays a part in the low degree of stratification. On top of that, children’s welfare state can be fully taken care of throughout their lives (not just at certain age simply) by the state instead of the family as well as the right of citizen similar to that of women. Although the new welfare reforms in Sweden offers been happening due to the economic crisis (such as for example increase in income inequality and market rather than state welfare service provider), Sweden is still in its own distinct group of social democratic style of welfare talk about (Kautto et al, 1999). This proves that the criticism of other scholars such as that of Kangas (1994) on the stability of Esping-Andersen’s typology as time passes is found ungrounded in this instance of Sweden.


The Esping-Andersen’s welfare status regimes along with its two main indicators have already been analysed above so that you can better understand the illustrations of the welfare regime designs supplied by the three countries selected to represent the regime. Although the country selected for liberal welfare model is not the most common prototype country which is the UK, it has given a better understanding on how it really is a hybrid before turning considerably more into a liberal regime during the recent years now following latest reforms. Additionally, it also shows that not absolutely all regimes can be found in pure form which can be among the criticisms of the regime typology. As for the other two countries, Germany and Sweden, they are the prototype countries in representing their particular welfare regimes; conservative and the cultural democratic which gives an additional, better description for the additional two Esping-Andersen’s welfare regimes along with highlighting the situation of his regime typology that excluded the female gender dimension.

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